Bent, but not broken, this seaside juniper is one of a small population of at most a couple dozen individuals growing in Washington’s Deception Pass State Park. These particular plants persisting against wind and saltspray form an atypical ecotype, as no other population is known to grow in this form and in a sand dune habitat. Typically, Juniperus maritima is an upright tree of the rocky margins of water bodies. The largest two known populations of several hundred plants each are in lands bordering Washington’s Puget Sound (another common name is Puget Sound juniper), but its range extends northward into lands adjacent to British Columbia’s Strait of Georgia. If geography is to be incorporated into a common name, a more inclusive moniker could be argued (e.g., Salish Sea juniper).
Juniperus maritima was scientifically described and published in 2007 (with a type specimen collected from Brentwood Bay, British Columbia). It may be hard to believe that a tree species near large urban areas of North America could escape the notice of botanists until 2007, but part of the reason for this is its extremely close resemblance to the Rocky Mountain juniper, Juniperus scopulorum. To be fair, Arthur Lee Jacobson (in his excellent write-up about Juniperus maritima) points out that the eminent botanist Leo Hitchcock wrote (in 1969): “Plants from the islands of Puget Sound appear to differ somewhat from those [Juniperus scopulorum] east of the Cascades in having the juvenile foliage longer-persistent and in producing cones [berries] that are less fleshy and rather consistently 1-seeded and it is believed not improbable that they will prove to constitute a distinctive race of the species.” It did take nearly 4 decades for that distinctiveness to be recognized scientifically, with convincing data coming from chemistry (terpenoid analysis) and genetics (ITS sequences).
More on the subtle physical differences between Juniperus maritima and Juniperus scopulorum can be gleaned from Botanical Electronic News #387 (January 17, 2008): Juniperus maritima, the seaside juniper, a new species from Puget Sound and Georgia Strait, North America. The original paper is available as well: Adams, R.P. 2007. Juniperus maritima, the seaside juniper, a new species from Puget Sound, North America (PDF). Phytologia 89(3):263-283). Additional photographs of this species can be seen via E-Flora BC (Juniperus maritima) or the Burke Museum Herbarium’s image collection: Juniperus maritima.