This plant is commonly known as horned rampion–no, I do not make these names up! If you were to visit the Dolomites at high elevations, you might see it tucked close to the ground–it’s only 10 cm high or so.
It is a member of the Campanulaceae, or bellflower family. Plants in this family can be found in nearly every part of the world, with the exception of tropical Africa, Antarctica and northern Greenland (source).
Most of the Campanulaceae, including Phyteuma, are herbs, but there are woody plants. Unfortunately, many woody Campanulaceae are threatened or endangered. A sad statistic is that 25% of the woody Campanulaceae once native to Hawaii are now extinct (Mabberley, The Plant-Book 2nd ed., 1997).