There are two recognized species (as of 2005) in the genus Letharia (the wolf lichens), and both can be found in western North America. This particular lichen was found growing at the trunk base of a Pinus ponderosa near Merritt, British Columbia.
Wolf lichens are so named because of their common use as poisons for wolves and foxes in Europe centuries ago. The lichen, with its toxic vulpinic acid, was mixed with ground glass and meat, apparently a deadly combination.
The lichen was also used as a source for making a yellow-coloured dye, which is not difficult to imagine.